Corneal Topography: From Theory to Practice

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” Kilic and Roberts have assembled a strong team of experts to create a treatise of extraordinary value to the eye care professionals. Modern corneal topography is presented from the fundamental concepts, to the descriptions of representative instruments available, to a selection of the many applications to which this technology has applied itself”, Stephen D. Klyce, taken from the preface.

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Kılıç and Roberts have assembled a strong team of experts to create a treatise of extraordinary value to the eye care professionals. Modern corneal topography is presented from the fundamental concepts, to the descriptions of representative instruments available, to a selection of the many applications to which this technology has applied itself. The field began as a quest to show the pioneers of keratorefractive surgery how the corneal surface was surgically altered. This provided guidance for the remarkable achievements that followed. Corneal topography transitioned into the diagnostic arena to make the critically important diagnosis of keratoconus and other ectatic degenerative diseases to improve the safety of refractive surgery. Corneal topography data have become a precise guide for corneal laser ablation by coupling individual corneal elevation data to control laser sculpting of tissue. Accurate knowledge of corneal shape has altered the way we fit contact lenses in difficult cases.

Corneal topography standards have been published or are in progress by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) workgroup. This underscores the fact that corneal topography is a mature science and a worldwide standard in anterior segment practice. However, we are not yet done. Improvements in the sensitivity and accuracy with the reflectiontype devices, slit–based devices, and interferometry-based instruments are nearly within our grasp. Adjunct technologies provide independent measurements that help to provide additional clues for early detection of corneal dystrophies. The availability of accurate global corneal pachymetry is an essential tool with which to detect abnormalities in corneal thickness that can be the only sign of impending disease. Biomechanical analysis is starting to yield clues about the efficacy of the stiffening effects of the corneal crosslinking procedures. Intelligent algorithms are incorporating combinations of available attributes for automatic diagnostics. Genetic analysis may eventually provide the clues necessary to forecast corneas prone to the development of an ectatic degenerative condition that weakens the stroma. In a field that began with the observation of distortions of window reflections from patients’ corneas, we have come a long way. But with apologies to Robert Frost: we have “… miles to go before …” we “… sleep.”

Stephen D. Klyce

Click here to read the introduction (pdf)

Aylin Kılıç, MD

Dr. Kılıç graduated from Hacettepe University in 1998. After finishing her residency in ophthalmology at Başkent University, she spent time at several universities in Europe and the USA for educational purposes. Currently, she is a surgeon at Dunya Eye Hospital, as well as a member of the Academic Faculty of Universita Della Svizzera Italiana European School for Advanced Studies in Ophthalmology, periodically giving lectures to students. Dr. Kılıç is a delegate representing Turkey to the International Society of Refractive Surgery (ISRS), a position she has held for 5 years. She is also an editorial board member of the International Journal of Keratoconus and Ectatic Corneal Diseases. Dr. Kılıç is a well–known international lecturer, and she has been involved in many international organizations as a guest speaker about keratocon us, refractive laser treatments, femto laser and femtolaser cataract treatment. She was the one of the youngest women to earn the Achievement Award from the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO), which she received in 2010 at the meeting in Chicago. Her significant contributions in the form of her research efforts and many publications led to this award, as well as her recognition among the ophthalmic community. At the current time, Dr. Kılıç has performed over 50,000 surgical procedures in the fields of cataract and refractive surgery.

Cynthia J. Roberts, PhD

Dr. Roberts received a B.S. Degree in Nursing with Distinction from the University of Iowa in 1979, and worked as a Registered Nurse for several years at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics before enrolling in engineering. She received an M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering in 1986, and a PhD in Biomedical Engineering in 1989, both from The Ohio State University. Dr. Roberts is currently a Professor in Ophthalmology and Biomedical Engineering at The Ohio State University, and holds the Martha G. and Milton Staub Chair for Research in Ophthalmology. Her research focus is ‘Ophthalmic Engineering’ or the application of engineering principles and problem–solving techniques to the maintenance and improvement of vision. Corneal topography was her first area of research within ophthalmology. Her other research interests include ocular biomechanics in refractive surgery, cornea and glaucoma; intraocular pressure measurement error; the in–vivo assessment of corneal biomechanical properties using ultrasonic and dynamic imaging techniques; ophthalmic imaging applications including intraoperative topography–guided surgery, Scheimpflug tomography, and optical coherence tomography with both cornea and retinal applications. She is well published in these areas and has many international collaborators. Dr. Roberts serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Refractive Surgery, the Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, and the International Journal of Keratoconus and Ectatic Corneal Diseases. She has given many invited lectures internationally, and multiple courses in corneal topography and corneal biomechanics, in both the United States and in Europe. Dr. Roberts received the inaugural Barrequer Medal from the Brazilian Society of Refractive Surgery in 2008 with a lecture entitled ‘Biomechanical Customization: The Next Generation of Refractive Surgery.’ She was inducted as a Fellow in the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering in 2009, and was recognized by the American Academy of Ophthalmology with an Achievement Award in 2012.


Stephen D. Klyce


Cynthia J. Roberts

About the Editors

About the Authors

Section 1: Basics

Elements of the Corneal Surfaces Geometry

Damien Gatinel

An Introduction to Understanding Elevation Based Topography: How Elevation Data are Displayed

Michael W. Belin and Stephen S. Khachikian

Comprehensive Corneal Thickness Evaluation

Renato Ambrósio Jr., Frederico Guerra, Isaac Ramos, Marcella Salomão, Bruno Valbon and Allan Luz

Videokeratographic Indices for the Detection of Keratoconus

Jean-Louis Bourges, Hubert Landry and Isabelle Brunette

Section 2: Devices

The Keratron Family of Corneal Topographers

Renzo Mattioli and Nancy K. Tripoli

The Orbscan II Corneal Topography System

Kooi Ling Lim and Han Bor Fam

Keratoconus and Ectasia Detection based on Elevation Data With The OCULUS Pentacam®

Michael W. Belin, Stephen S. Khachikian, Marcella Salomão and Renato Ambrósio Jr.

GALILEI™ Dual Scheimpflug Analyzer

Cynthia J. Roberts, Benno J. Züger, Jennifer R. Lewis and Roger R. Cattin

OPD-Scan III: Combining Corneal Topography and Wavefront Aberrometry

Harkaran S. Bains and Damien Gatinel

Discovery – Corneal Topographer and Ocular Aberrometer

Edwin J. Sarver, Donald R. Sanders and David Liu

Section 3: Applications

Topographic Changes after Excimer Laser Refractive Surgery

Cynthia J. Roberts and Ashraf M. Mahmoud

Corneal Topographic Response to Swelling in Normal and post-LASIK Corneas

Deborah M. Grzybowski, Nicholas A. Rogers, Ashraf M. Mahmoud and Cynthia J. Roberts

The Use of Corneal Topography in Intraocular Lens

Power Calculations after Corneal Refractive Surgery

Arthur Cheng, Srinivas K. Rao and Dennis S.C. Lam

Progress and Challenges in Measuring Total Corneal Power

Li Wang, Mitchell P. Weikert and Douglas D. Koch

A Computerized 3D Atlas of the Human Corneal Shape

Jean Meunier and Isabelle Brunette

3-D Corneal Shape after Deep Lamellar Endothelial Keratoplasty

Isabelle Brunette, Mark A. Terry and Jean Meunier

Topography-Based Rigid Precorn eal Lenses

Peter E. Wilcox

Classic References and Authors in Corneal Topography

Conflict of Interest

Additional information

Weight 1200 g
Dimensions 24 × 16 cm





Publication Year

2013 (4-10-2013)